February 2014


the old picture – Ceropegia spiralis

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c.spiralis.ipio

Ceropegia spiralis Wight

Depiction from: ‘R. Wight: Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis. Madras: published by J.B. Pharoah for the author 1840-1853’

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org

Ceropegia dichotoma – first buds

… bought nine days ago. 😛

c.dichotoma.150214.1

EDIT: the flowers have not opened, they’re dried out.

The first new addition in 2014

Today: Ceropegia africana bought as Ceropegia barkleyi, and Ceropegia dichotoma bought as Ceropegia hians.

Natural enemies

Most, if not all species of the genus Ceropegia contain larger or smaller amounts of the alkaloid Ceropegin, and thus are probably not specifically taken by mammals as food, however, giraffes have been observed in the Niger to occasionally eat shoots of Ceropegia aristolochioides. [5]

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On the other hand, however, several species of Ceropegia are very important food plants for the caterpillars of some butterfly species from the Brush-footed Butterfly family (Nymphalidae).

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danaus.genutia.raupe.fm.li

danaus.genutia.fm.li

above:

The caterpillars of the Common Tiger (Danaus genutia (Cramer)) from India feed on Ceropegia elegans, Ceropegia intermedia, Ceropegia lawii, Ceropegia manoharii, Ceropegia oculata, and Ceropegia thwaitesii. [1][6][9]

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parantica.aglea.raupe.fm.li

parantica.aglea.fm.li

above:

The caterpillars of the Glassy Tiger (Parantica aglea (Stoll)) have been recorded from the Andaman Islands to feed on Ceropegia andamanica, and from India on Ceropegia bulbosa, Ceropegia hirsuta, Ceropegia lawii, and Ceropegia oculata. [2][6][9][10]

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parantica.taprobana.fm.li

above:

The caterpillars of the Ceylon Tiger (Parantica taprobana (Felder & Felder)) from Sri Lanka are thought to feed on Ceropegia thwaitesii, however, this is still to be proven. [8]

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euploea.core.raupe.fm.li

euploea.core.fm.li

above:

The caterpillars of the Common Crow (Euploea core (Cramer)) in Australia – which, by the way, is a collective species, consisting of at least five distinct species – are known to feed on Ceropegia cumingiana. [4]

Depictions from: ‘F. Moore: Lepidoptera Indica. London 1890-1913’

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org

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danaus.chrysippus.raupe.kn

danaus.chrysippus.kn

above:

The caterpillars of the African Monarch (Danaus chrysippus L.), a species that is distributed over Africa and parts of Asia, are known to feed on several species of Ceropegia in Africa, and at least on Ceropegia bulbosa in India. [2]

The same species was formerly a straggler to the Canary Islands but is now a resident, its larvae were recorded on the islands first on the introduced asclepioid species Orbea variegata (L.) Haw. in 2010. [7]

This species is now known to feed on the endemic Ceropegia species as well (see photograph, which, by the way, was taken in 2008 (!)).

Photos: Klaus Nowak; by courtesy of Klaus Nowak

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References:

[1] Naresh Chaturvedi; Meena Haribal: New larval food plants for the Common Tiger Butterfly in India (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 158. 1992
[2] N. Patil; M. R. Almeida: Ceropegia bulbosa var. lushii (Grah.) Hook. f.: a new food plant for plain tiger butterfly Danaus chrysippus (Linn.). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 93(3): 600. 1996
[3] P. V. Sreekumar; K. Veenakumari; Mohanraj Prashanth: Ceropegia andamanica (Asclepiadaceae) a new ‘fly trap flower’ from the Andaman Islands, India. Blumea 43(1): 215-217. 1998
[4] R. L. Kitching; E. Scheermeyer; R. E. Jones; N. E. Pierce: Biology of Australian Butterflies. CSIRO Publishing, 1999
[5] I. Ciofolo; Y. Le Pendu: The Feeding Behaviour of Giraffe in Niger. Mammalia – International Journal of the Systematics, Biology and Ecology of Mammals. 66(2): 183–194. 2002
[6] Mamata Chandrakar; Sachin Palekar; Sangita Chandrakar: Butterfly fauna of Melghat Region, Maharashtra. Zoos’ Print Journal 22(7): 2762-2764. 2007
[7] T. van der Heyden: Orbea variegata (L.) Haworth, 1812 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) als Futterpflanze der Larven von Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) auf den Kanarischen Inseln (Spanien) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danainae). Shilap Revta. lepid., 38(149): 107-110. 2010
[8] George van der Poorten; Nancy van der Poorten: New and revised descriptions of the immature stages of some butterflies in Sri Lanka and their larval food plants (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Part 1: Sub-family Danainae. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 44: 1-16. 2011
[9] P. Sujanapal; P. M. Salim; N. Anil Kumar, N. Sasidharan: A new species of Ceropegia (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) from India with notes on rare and threatened Ceropegia in Nilgiris of Western Ghats. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 7(1): 341-345. 2013
[10] M. Bhakare; H. Ogale: Larval host plants — Asclepiadaceae. In: K. Kunte, S. Kalesh & U. Kodandaramaiah (eds.). Butterflies of India, v. 2.00. Indian Foundation for Butterflies 2014

Ceropegia robynsiana Werderm.

Diese wüchsige Art aus dem tropischen Afrika wurde im Jahr 1938 beschrieben. [1][2][3]

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Ceropegia robynsiana ist eine wuchernde Liane, deren Triebe 6 m lang und länger werden können.

Die Stammbasis älterer Pflanzen ist recht holzig und fingerdick, der Trieb ist meist mehr oder weniger verzweigt. Die oberen Triebteile sterben saisonal ab, zumindest in Kultur, der Trieb produziert jedoch zahlreiche Kurztriebe, die abgeworfen werden und zur Vermehrung verwendet werden können (wie bei Ceropegia nilotica Kotschy).

Die Blätter sind unbehaart, sie haben einen 1 bis 1,5 cm langen Stiel, sie sind breit elliptisch bis oval geformt, 6 bis 8 cm lang und 4 bis 6 cm breit.

Die attraktiven Blüten erscheinen in wenigblütigen Cymen, die Pedunkel sind 4 bis 13 cm lang, die Blütenstiele sind 1 bis 2,5 cm lang, die Blüten selbst sind etwa 6 cm lang, die Länge ihrer Kronzipfel variiert je nach Klon. [2][3]

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Die Art ist am nächsten mit der in Kenia endemischen Ceropegia ballyana Bullock verwandt und steht sonst den endemischen Arten Madagaskars am nächsten, besonders Ceropegia albisepta Jum. & H. Perrier, der sie auch bis vor kurzem als Varietät oder Unterart zugeordnet wurde. [3][4]

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Ceropegia robynsiana Werderm.

This fast-growing species from the tropical Africa was described in the year 1938. [1][2][3]

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Ceropegia robynsiana is a rampant liana, whose stems may reach lengths of 6 m and more.

The stem base of older plants is quite woody and as thick as a finger, the stem is often more or less branched. The upper parts of the stem die back seasonally, at least in cultivation, however, the stem produces numerous short shoots, which are dropped and which can be used for propagation (as with Ceropegia nilotica Kotschy).

The leaves are glabrous, they have a 1 to 1,5 cm long petiole, they are broad elliptic to ovate in shape, 6 to 8 cm long, and 4 to 6 cm wide.

The attractive flowers appear in few-flowered cymes, the peduncles are 4 to 13 cm long, the pedicels are 1 to 2,5 cm long, the flowers themselves are about 6 cm long, the length of their petals varies from clone to clone. [2][3]

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The species is most closely related to the Kenyan endemic Ceropegia ballyana Bullock, apart from that it is very closely related to the Madagascan endemic species, especially to Ceropegia albisepta Jum. & H. Perrier, to which it was assigned as a variety or subspecies until recently. [3][4]

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Referenzen / References:

[1] E. Werdermann: Übersicht über die aus dem Belgischen Kongo stammenden Arten der Gattung Ceropegia. Bulletin du Jardin botanique de l’État a Bruxelles 15(2): 222-240. 1938
[2] P. G. Archer: Kenya Ceropegia Scrapbook. Notes and records of some Kenya Ceropegia. Hobart (AUS): Artemis Pup. Consultans 1992
[3] Focke Albers; Ulrich Meve: Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Asclepiadaceae. Springer 2002
[4] Ulrich Meve; Sigrid Liede-Schumann: Ceropegia (Apocynaceae, Ceropegiaeae, Stapeliinae): paraphyletic but still taxonomically sound. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 94: 392-406. 2007

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c.robynsiana.111010.1

Foto / Photo: Alexander Lang