Botanical drawings – Ceropegia cumingiana

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chloropsis-cyanopogon-jg

Ceropegia cumingiana Decne. (on a depiction of the Lesser Green Leafbird (Chloropsis cyanopogon (Temminck)))

Depiction from: ‘John Gould: Birds of Asia. London: Printed by Taylor and Francis, pub. by the author 1850-1883’

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org

photo of the week – Ceropegia cumingiana

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c.cumingiana.fz.300916

Photo: by courtesy of Frank Zich (CSIRO – Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization)

http://www.csiro.au

photo of the week – Ceropegia cumingiana

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9.c.fz

Photo: by courtesy of Frank Zich (CSIRO – Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization)

http://www.csiro.au

photo of the week – Ceropegia cumingiana

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8.c.fz

Photo: by courtesy of Frank Zich (CSIRO – Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization)

http://www.csiro.au

photo of the week – Ceropegia cumingiana

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10.c.fz

Photo: by courtesy of Frank Zich (CSIRO – Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization)

http://www.csiro.au

the old picture – Ceropegia cumingiana

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c.cumingiana.cbm

Ceropegia cumingiana Decne.

Depiction from: ‘Curtis’s Botanical Magazine Vol. 74. 1848’

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org

Natural enemies

Most, if not all species of the genus Ceropegia contain larger or smaller amounts of the alkaloid Ceropegin, and thus are probably not specifically taken by mammals as food, however, giraffes have been observed in the Niger to occasionally eat shoots of Ceropegia aristolochioides. [5]

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On the other hand, however, several species of Ceropegia are very important food plants for the caterpillars of some butterfly species from the Brush-footed Butterfly family (Nymphalidae).

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danaus.genutia.raupe.fm.li

danaus.genutia.fm.li

above:

The caterpillars of the Common Tiger (Danaus genutia (Cramer)) from India feed on Ceropegia elegans, Ceropegia intermedia, Ceropegia lawii, Ceropegia manoharii, Ceropegia oculata, and Ceropegia thwaitesii. [1][6][9]

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parantica.aglea.raupe.fm.li

parantica.aglea.fm.li

above:

The caterpillars of the Glassy Tiger (Parantica aglea (Stoll)) have been recorded from the Andaman Islands to feed on Ceropegia andamanica, and from India on Ceropegia bulbosa, Ceropegia hirsuta, Ceropegia lawii, and Ceropegia oculata. [2][6][9][10]

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parantica.taprobana.fm.li

above:

The caterpillars of the Ceylon Tiger (Parantica taprobana (Felder & Felder)) from Sri Lanka are thought to feed on Ceropegia thwaitesii, however, this is still to be proven. [8]

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euploea.core.raupe.fm.li

euploea.core.fm.li

above:

The caterpillars of the Common Crow (Euploea core (Cramer)) in Australia – which, by the way, is a collective species, consisting of at least five distinct species – are known to feed on Ceropegia cumingiana. [4]

Depictions from: ‘F. Moore: Lepidoptera Indica. London 1890-1913’

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org

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danaus.chrysippus.raupe.kn

danaus.chrysippus.kn

above:

The caterpillars of the African Monarch (Danaus chrysippus L.), a species that is distributed over Africa and parts of Asia, are known to feed on several species of Ceropegia in Africa, and at least on Ceropegia bulbosa in India. [2]

The same species was formerly a straggler to the Canary Islands but is now a resident, its larvae were recorded on the islands first on the introduced asclepioid species Orbea variegata (L.) Haw. in 2010. [7]

This species is now known to feed on the endemic Ceropegia species as well (see photograph, which, by the way, was taken in 2008 (!)).

Photos: Klaus Nowak; by courtesy of Klaus Nowak

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References:

[1] Naresh Chaturvedi; Meena Haribal: New larval food plants for the Common Tiger Butterfly in India (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 158. 1992
[2] N. Patil; M. R. Almeida: Ceropegia bulbosa var. lushii (Grah.) Hook. f.: a new food plant for plain tiger butterfly Danaus chrysippus (Linn.). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 93(3): 600. 1996
[3] P. V. Sreekumar; K. Veenakumari; Mohanraj Prashanth: Ceropegia andamanica (Asclepiadaceae) a new ‘fly trap flower’ from the Andaman Islands, India. Blumea 43(1): 215-217. 1998
[4] R. L. Kitching; E. Scheermeyer; R. E. Jones; N. E. Pierce: Biology of Australian Butterflies. CSIRO Publishing, 1999
[5] I. Ciofolo; Y. Le Pendu: The Feeding Behaviour of Giraffe in Niger. Mammalia – International Journal of the Systematics, Biology and Ecology of Mammals. 66(2): 183–194. 2002
[6] Mamata Chandrakar; Sachin Palekar; Sangita Chandrakar: Butterfly fauna of Melghat Region, Maharashtra. Zoos’ Print Journal 22(7): 2762-2764. 2007
[7] T. van der Heyden: Orbea variegata (L.) Haworth, 1812 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) als Futterpflanze der Larven von Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) auf den Kanarischen Inseln (Spanien) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danainae). Shilap Revta. lepid., 38(149): 107-110. 2010
[8] George van der Poorten; Nancy van der Poorten: New and revised descriptions of the immature stages of some butterflies in Sri Lanka and their larval food plants (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Part 1: Sub-family Danainae. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 44: 1-16. 2011
[9] P. Sujanapal; P. M. Salim; N. Anil Kumar, N. Sasidharan: A new species of Ceropegia (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) from India with notes on rare and threatened Ceropegia in Nilgiris of Western Ghats. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 7(1): 341-345. 2013
[10] M. Bhakare; H. Ogale: Larval host plants — Asclepiadaceae. In: K. Kunte, S. Kalesh & U. Kodandaramaiah (eds.). Butterflies of India, v. 2.00. Indian Foundation for Butterflies 2014

Ceropegia cumingiana ‘Starry Night

Diese sehr spezielle Form, die man im Handel findet – nur leider nicht in Deutschland (oder Europa überhaupt … es entzieht sich meinem Verständnis wieso ….) – springt ins Auge wegen ihrer gelblich gepunkteten Blätter. Es mögen nur ein paar wenige goldene Pünktchen sein oder so viele, dass die Pflanze beinahe krank erscheint – als wäre sie von irgendwelchen schädlichen Insekten befallen.

Die Blüten dieses speziellen Klons sind jedoch ziemlich unauffällig.

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Ceropegia cumingiana ‘Starry Night

This very special form, that is found in the trade – but unfortunately not in Germany (or Europe generally … it is beyond my comprehension to understand why …) – leaps to the eye because of its yellowish spotted leaves. There may be just a few golden jots, or there may be so many of them that the plant appears a bit sick looking – almost as if it would be infested by some pesty insects.

The flowers of this particular clone, however, are quite inconspicous.

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c.cumingiana.starry-night.ah

Foto / Photo: Albert Huntington; mit freundlicher Genehmigung von / by courtesy of Albert Huntington

http://www.alsgh.com
http://www.alsgh.com/blog

Ceropegia cumingiana Decne.

Ceropegia cumingiana ist recht weit verbreitet und entsprechend vielgestaltig – es wurden mindestens drei Unterarten aufgestellt, die aber mittlerweile nicht mehr anerkannt werden.

Es handelt sich um eine Liane, die ausgewachsen tatsächlich an die 10 m lang werden kann und ist damit eine der größten Arten der Gattung Ceropegia.

Die Pflanze besitzt fleischige Speicherwurzeln, die eine Länge von etwa 15 cm erreichen, Speicherknollen fehlen.

Die Blätter sind 2 bis 13 cm lang und 1,5 bis 7 cm breit und sitzen auf einem 2,5 bis 4 cm langen Stiel. Sie sind breit oval-elliptisch geformt mit einer herzförmigen oder gerundeten Blattbasis.

Die Blüten stehen an einem bis zu 8 cm langen Stiel, entweder allein oder in Gruppen von bis zu zwanzig. Sie sind, je nach Klon, zwischen 1,5 bis 3 cm lang und mehr oder weniger bunt gefärbt. [1]

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Alle bisher untersuchten Ceropegia-Arten werden von Zweiflüglern (Ordnung: Diptera) bestäubt, doch die Bestäuberarten sind nur in sehr wenigen Fällen genau bekannt.

Der Bestäuber der australischen Art ist derzeit nicht bekannt, es gibt jedoch einen in frage kommenden Kandidaten, eine kleine Fliegenart aus der Familie Chloropidae (Unterfamilie Oscinellinae). Sechs dieser Fliegen wurden aus einer Blüte eines Herbarexemplars extrahiert, doch obwohl der Blüte die Pollinien fehlten, haftete an keiner der Fliegen ein Polinium, der endgültige Beweis fehlt also noch. [2]

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In Queensland / Australien nennen die Ureinwohner die Pflanze Anareata und essen ihre Wurzeln. In Teilen Neuguinea werden die unterirdischen Teile ebenfalls gegessen, aber auch als Medizin verwendet. [1]

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Die abgebildete Pflanze wurde nahe des Mt. Kinabalu im malaysischen Bundesstaat Sabah, im nördlichen Teil Borneos fotografiert.

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Ceropegia cumingiana Decne.

Ceropegia cumingiana is quite widely distributed and hence shows a great variability – at least three subspecies were once recognized, but these are not accepted anymore by now.

It is a liana, which, when fully grown, can actually become as large as 10 m in height, and is therefore one of the largest species within the genus Ceropegia.

The plant has fleshy storage roots, which can reach a length of about 15 cm, storage tubers are not present.

The leaves are 2 to 13 cm long and 1,5 to 7 cm wide, sitting on a 2,5 to 4 cm long petiole. They are broadly ovate elliptic in shape and have a heart-shaped or rounded leaf base.

The flowers stand on an up to 8 cm long petiole, either alone or in groups of up to twenty. They are, depending on the clone, between 1,5 to 3 cm long, and more or less colourful. [1]

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All Ceropegia species, examined so far, are pollinated by dipterous insects (order: Diptera), but the particular pollinater species are known only in a very few cases.

The pollinator of the Australian species is not known so far, however, there is a candidate, that seems to be qualified, a small fly species from the family Chloropidae (subfamily Oscinellinae). Six of these flies were extracted from a single flower on a herbar specimen, however, thought this flower lacked any pollinia, none of the flies had pollinia attached, so the conclusive proof is still missing. [2]

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In Queensland / Australia, the natives name this plant as Anareata and eat its roots. In some parts of New Guinea the subterranean parts are eaten as well, but are also taken for medical purposes. [1]

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The depicted plant was photographed near the Mt. Kinabalu in the Malaysian state of Sabah, in the northern part of Borneo.

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Referenzen / References:

[1] P. V. Bruyns: Ceropegia cumingiana Decne (Asclepiadaceae) Austrobaileya 3(1): 7-11. 1989
[2] J. Ollerton; P. Forster: Diptera associated with flowers of Ceropegia cumingiana in Australia. Asklepios 66: 21-22. 1995

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c.cumingiana.tb

c.cumingiana.tb1

Fotos / Photos: Tom Ballinger; mit freundlicher Genehmigung von / by courtesy of Tom Ballinger

http://www.flickr.com/photos/polylepis