Ceropegia oculata Hook.

Ceropegia oculata Hook.

Diese Art, gemeinhin Pfauen-Ceropegia oder Pfauen-Fliegenfalle genannt, wurde im Jahr 1844 beschrieben, sie ist in Maharashtra in Indien endemisch, bevorzugt in Regionen mit hohem Regenfall. [2][7]

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Es ist eine kletternde Pflanze mit einer kleinen Speicherknolle.

Die Blätter sind lang gestielt und lanzettförmig bis elliptisch oder breit oval bis länglich oval und oberseits leicht behaart.

Die Blüten stehen an wenigblütigen Cymen, sie sind etwa 6,5 cm lang und scheinen etwas variabel zu sein, manche sind weiß mit dunkelbraunen Flecken, andere sind einfarbig grünlich weiß, während andere bräunlich rosa gefärbt sind.

Einer von sicher vielen lokalen Namen der Pflanze ist Mor Kharchudi (in Marathi). [2][4]

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Die Menschen vom Dhangar- und vom Gowli-Stamm in der Purandhar-Region in Maharashtra nutzen die Blätter um Konjunktivitis zu behandeln, einer ihrer Namen dort ist Dudhani. [7]

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Ceropegia oculata var. satpudensis Punekar, S. D. Jagtap & Deokule

Diese Varietät, die in den Satpuda Hill-Ranges im Nandurbar-Distrikt im nördlichen Maharashtra verbreitet ist, wurde im Jahr 2005 beschrieben, sie wächst in schattigen Bambusdickichten trockener Laubwälder in Höhen von 584 bis 1118 m. [5]

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Es handelt sich um eine windende Pflanze, deren Trieb einer unterirdischen Knolle von 2 bis 4 cm Durchmesser entspringt und etwa 50 bis 70 cm lang werden kann.

Die gegenständigen Blätter sind etwa 14 cm lang und 5,5 cm breit und im Gegensatz zur Nominatform entspringen sie einem 1,2 bis 3 cm langen Blattstiel. Die Blätter sind oberseits leicht behaart, unterseits nur auf den Blattnerven.

Die Blüten stehen in Gruppen von zwei bis vier an einem Blütenstand, sie unterscheiden sich von der Nominatform sowohl in der Form als auch in der Färbung, so sind sie schmaler und auf ihrer gesamten Oberfläche mehr oder weniger einheitlich bräunlich rosa gefärbt. [5]

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Der im Nandurbar-Distrikt siedelnde Stamm der Pawra oder Pawara kennt die Pflanze unter dem Name Khotti bzw. Khutti (in Pawri oder Pawari) und verwendet die Knollen als Medizin gegen Fieber bei Kindern. [5]

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Ceropegia oculata Hook.

This species, colloquially known as Peacock Ceropegia or Peacock Fly Trap, was described in the year 1844, it is endemic to Maharashtra in India, where it prefers areas with high rainfall. [2][7]

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It is a climbing plant with a small subterranean storage tuber.

The leaves are long petiolate and lancet-shaped to elliptical or broadly ovate to ovate-oblong and sparsely hairy above.

The flowers stand in few-flowered cymes, they are about 6,5 cm long and appear to be somewhat variable, some are white with dark maroon spots, others are rather uniformely greenish white, while others are brownish pink in colour.

One of perhaps many local names of this plant is Mor Kharchudi (in Marathi). [2][4]

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The people of the Dhangar and the Gowli tribes in the Purandhar region in Maharashtra use the leaves of the plant to cure conjunctivitis, one of its names there is Dudhani. [7]

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Ceropegia oculata var. satpudensis Punekar, S. D. Jagtap & Deokule

This variety, which is found in the Satpuda Hill ranges in the Nandurbar District in northern Maharashtra, was described in the year 2005, it grows in shady bamboo thickets of dry decidous forests at elevations of 584 to 1118 m. [5]

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It is a twining plant, the stem arises from a subterranean tuber, which reaches a size of about 2 to 4 cm in diameter, and which can grow 50 to 70 cm long.

The opposite leaves are about 14 cm long and 5,5 cm wide and in contrast to the nominate form arise from a 1,2 to 3 cm long petiole. The leaves are slighly haired on the upper side and on the nerves beneath.

The flowers appear in groups of two to four in a cyme, they differ from those of the nominate form both in their form as well as in their colouration, they are narrower and are coloured on their outer surface more or less completely uniformely brownish pink. [5]

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The Pawra- or Pawara tribe, that settles in the Nandurbar District, knows this plant under the name Khotti resp. Khutti (in Pawri or Pawari) and uses the tubers as a medicine to cure children’s fever. [5]

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Referenzen / References:

[1] Herbert H. Huber: Revision der Gattung Ceropegia. Memórias da Sociedade Broteriana 12: 1-203. 1957
[2] M. Y. Ansari: Asclepiadaceae: Genus Ceropegia. Fasc. 16: 1-34. In: Flora of India. Calcutta: Botanical Survey of India 1984
[3] Sharad Singh Negi: Biodiversity and Its Conservation in India. Indus Publishing Company, New Dehli 1993
[4] Focke Albers; Ulrich Meve: Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Asclepiadaceae. Springer 2002
[5] Sachin A. Punekar; Suresh D. Jagtap; Subash S. Deokule: A new variety of Ceropegia oculata Hook. (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) from Satpuda hill ranges of Maharashtra, India. Current Science 91(9): 1142-1145. 2006
[6] S. D. Jagtap; S. S. Deokule; S. V. Bhosle: Ethnobotanical uses of endemic and RET plants by Pawra tribe of Nandurbar district, Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowlegde 7(2): 311-315. 2008
[7] S. V. Bhosle; V. P. Ghule; D. J. Aundhe; S. D. Jagtap: Ethnomedical Knowlegde of Plants used by the Tribal people of Purandhar in Maharashtra, India. Enthnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1353-1361. 2009

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c.oculata.sm

Foto / Photo: Sushant More; mit freundlicher Genehmigung von / by courtesy of Sushant More

http://www.flickr.com/photos/66499264@N05

A new locality for Ceropegia oculata?

A new locality for Ceropegia oculata?

These photos were taken by  N.S. Dungriyal, the field director of the Satpura Tiger Reserve, they show a plant that I would identify as Ceropegia oculata Hook..

The flowers are quite similar to nearly identical to a special form of the species, that had been described in 2005 as a distinct variety: Ceropegia oculata var. satpudensis Punekar, S. D. Jagtap & Deokule, this has now been reduced to synonymy with the nominate race.

If my identification turns out to be correct, then this find would probably represent a new locality for this species, since it obviously is known only from Maharashtra so far – as far as I know.

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c.oculata.nsd

c.oculata.nsd1

Photos: N.S. Dungriyal; by courtesy of N.S. Dungriyal

Natural enemies

Natural enemies

Most, if not all species of the genus Ceropegia contain larger or smaller amounts of the alkaloid Ceropegin, and thus are probably not specifically taken by mammals as food, however, giraffes have been observed in the Niger to occasionally eat shoots of Ceropegia aristolochioides. [5]

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On the other hand, however, several species of Ceropegia are very important food plants for the caterpillars of some butterfly species from the Brush-footed Butterfly family (Nymphalidae).

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danaus.genutia.raupe.fm.li

danaus.genutia.fm.li

above:

The caterpillars of the Common Tiger (Danaus genutia (Cramer)) from India feed on Ceropegia elegans, Ceropegia intermedia, Ceropegia lawii, Ceropegia manoharii, Ceropegia oculata, and Ceropegia thwaitesii. [1][6][9]

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parantica.aglea.raupe.fm.li

parantica.aglea.fm.li

above:

The caterpillars of the Glassy Tiger (Parantica aglea (Stoll)) have been recorded from the Andaman Islands to feed on Ceropegia andamanica, and from India on Ceropegia bulbosa, Ceropegia hirsuta, Ceropegia lawii, and Ceropegia oculata. [2][6][9][10]

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parantica.taprobana.fm.li

above:

The caterpillars of the Ceylon Tiger (Parantica taprobana (Felder & Felder)) from Sri Lanka are thought to feed on Ceropegia thwaitesii, however, this is still to be proven. [8]

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euploea.core.raupe.fm.li

euploea.core.fm.li

above:

The caterpillars of the Common Crow (Euploea core (Cramer)) in Australia – which, by the way, is a collective species, consisting of at least five distinct species – are known to feed on Ceropegia cumingiana. [4]

Depictions from: ‘F. Moore: Lepidoptera Indica. London 1890-1913’

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org

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danaus.chrysippus.raupe.kn

danaus.chrysippus.kn

above:

The caterpillars of the African Monarch (Danaus chrysippus L.), a species that is distributed over Africa and parts of Asia, are known to feed on several species of Ceropegia in Africa, and at least on Ceropegia bulbosa in India. [2]

The same species was formerly a straggler to the Canary Islands but is now a resident, its larvae were recorded on the islands first on the introduced asclepioid species Orbea variegata (L.) Haw. in 2010. [7]

This species is now known to feed on the endemic Ceropegia species as well (see photograph, which, by the way, was taken in 2008 (!)).

Photos: Klaus Nowak; by courtesy of Klaus Nowak

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References:

[1] Naresh Chaturvedi; Meena Haribal: New larval food plants for the Common Tiger Butterfly in India (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae). Tropical Lepidoptera 3(2): 158. 1992
[2] N. Patil; M. R. Almeida: Ceropegia bulbosa var. lushii (Grah.) Hook. f.: a new food plant for plain tiger butterfly Danaus chrysippus (Linn.). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 93(3): 600. 1996
[3] P. V. Sreekumar; K. Veenakumari; Mohanraj Prashanth: Ceropegia andamanica (Asclepiadaceae) a new ‘fly trap flower’ from the Andaman Islands, India. Blumea 43(1): 215-217. 1998
[4] R. L. Kitching; E. Scheermeyer; R. E. Jones; N. E. Pierce: Biology of Australian Butterflies. CSIRO Publishing, 1999
[5] I. Ciofolo; Y. Le Pendu: The Feeding Behaviour of Giraffe in Niger. Mammalia – International Journal of the Systematics, Biology and Ecology of Mammals. 66(2): 183–194. 2002
[6] Mamata Chandrakar; Sachin Palekar; Sangita Chandrakar: Butterfly fauna of Melghat Region, Maharashtra. Zoos’ Print Journal 22(7): 2762-2764. 2007
[7] T. van der Heyden: Orbea variegata (L.) Haworth, 1812 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) als Futterpflanze der Larven von Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) auf den Kanarischen Inseln (Spanien) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danainae). Shilap Revta. lepid., 38(149): 107-110. 2010
[8] George van der Poorten; Nancy van der Poorten: New and revised descriptions of the immature stages of some butterflies in Sri Lanka and their larval food plants (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Part 1: Sub-family Danainae. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 44: 1-16. 2011
[9] P. Sujanapal; P. M. Salim; N. Anil Kumar, N. Sasidharan: A new species of Ceropegia (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) from India with notes on rare and threatened Ceropegia in Nilgiris of Western Ghats. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 7(1): 341-345. 2013
[10] M. Bhakare; H. Ogale: Larval host plants — Asclepiadaceae. In: K. Kunte, S. Kalesh & U. Kodandaramaiah (eds.). Butterflies of India, v. 2.00. Indian Foundation for Butterflies 2014